I am a photographer, not a lawyer. This is a complex issue with compelling arguments on both sides.
This is my view as seen through the lens of a headshot photographer.
In 2012, the Canadian Copyright Act was amended to recognize photographers as the first owners of the copyright of their images and protects certain rights. The default position of the Act, however, protects an individual's right to use 'for private use' any image they commission. This concerns a lot of headshot, portrait, wedding and family photographers who view 'private use' as uncontrolled distribution of their work (for which they would like to charge). Commercial use remains prohibited without the photographer's authorization and many photographers seek these same restrictions for private use with contract clauses like "No reproduction is permitted without the photographer’s written authorization.”
On the other side, the subject of the photograph (that would be you - this is a headshot after all) also has certain rights independent of the photographer as it relates to privacy and publicity. When a photographer seeks to use your likeness for marketing, advertising, self-promotion, etc, this is commercial use. Your privacy rights provide certain protections from having your image being presented to the public, and your publicity rights provide certain controls regarding how it is presented.
Whose rights are more right? I don't know. These changes are still relatively recent and continue to be tested in court.
So, where do I stand?
As a headshot photographer, I believe the underlying reason for a headshot is for commercial use. Exercising any right to restrict your use of your likeness for commercial purposes without additional payment seems ridiculous. And since the Canadian Copyright Act already protects your right for private use, I see no need to add additional constraints.
When I take your headshot, you are free to use the resulting images without restriction.
In terms of privacy, I do not use client images for self-promotion. I state this on my site. Every headshot in my portfolio and social media feeds are of local aspiring artists, models, students and actors taken by me during complimentary sessions where my intended use of these images for marketing purposes was explicitly declared and agreed.
I feel that strongly about your privacy.
Does this hurt me? Maybe. I see it as my way of supporting the local community.
Read carefully what you sign. Know and protect your rights. Get legal advice if you're not sure.